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Cell culture

The growth of cells in a laboratory dish for experimental research. The cells are grown in a solution, or medium, that contains nutrients and growth factors. Different factors can be added to the culture medium to initiate changes in cell behaviour.

Cell line

A population of cells all carrying the same genes, grown in the laboratory through many cycles of growth and division over many generations of cells.

Clinical translation

The process of turning scientific knowledge into approved medical treatments, through a series of carefully controlled research and approval steps.

Clinical trial

A research study in human subjects to answer specific questions about vaccines or new therapies or new ways of using known treatments. Clinical trials are used to determine whether new drugs or treatments are both safe and effective.


When cells become “committed” they are bound towards a programme of differentiation, becoming specialised to perform particular tasks. For a stem cell, this means it no longer retains the ability to self-renew.