Pub. No.: WO/2016/116769: International Application No.: PCT/GB2016/050146
Disclosed are methods and procedures which may be applied to cells (including differentiating (or partially differentiated) cells, cells in the terminal stages of differentiation and/or differentiated cells) to facilitate late stage maturation towards mature erythrocyte lineages – in particular towards reticulocytes and/or enucleated (anucleate) mature erythrocytes. The disclosure provides a method in which mature enucleated erythrocytes and/or reticulocytes are produced maintaining and/or culturing stem cells (for example differentiating or differentiated stem cells) under one or more maturation conditions in which the pH, level of (dissolved) oxygen; and level of mechanical stress is controlled.